Repairing a Damaged Popcorn Ceiling
“Popcorn,” or stucco-style finish is very appealing to homeowners as it adds a textured look to a wall or ceiling instead of a simple painted finish. The process of applying the popcorn finish is a project that an experienced do-it-yourselfer can tackle, although it does take some practice to master and I’d suggest a few trial and error runs.
The reason why some homeowners dislike popcorn ceilings is that damage to the finish can be a challenge to fix. Many new homeowners become nervous when they move into a home that has a stucco ceiling with signs of water damage and staining. Repairing and repainting a patch on a gloss-finish ceiling is an easy job but repairing a popcorn textured surface is often intimidating to those who have never done it before. The good news is that it isn’t very difficult to patch a popcorn ceiling with a water stain – you just have to follow a few simple steps.
Determine the Cause of the Water Stain
It's kind of a moot point to start painting over a water stain without first determining where the moisture is coming from (and if it will return). A homeowner could technically keep applying layers and layers of finish to cover the stain but a leak or a faulty pipe could cause bigger problems down the line so it’s important to identify the source and correct the issue before repairing the water stain or water damage.
Most of the time a water stain on the drywall in a ceiling is caused by faulty shingles on the roof, but if the stain is directly below a bathroom the source could be a slow-leaking pipe. If possible, a homeowner should navigate to their roof and look for any signs of damage (torn and tattered shingles are a red flag but sometimes there could be an issue with flashing that is tougher to detect). For small issues caulking the area can work as a temporary fix but if you find serious damage a new roof may be needed to correct the situation.
Try to Remove the Stain
There are two main ways to attack a water stain on a popcorn ceiling – drawing the stain out or covering it up. The first way to try and draw the stain out is with a concoction of bleach and water mixed into a spray bottle. You want to use the spray bottle because dabbing the mix on the ceiling can damage the sometimes brittle popcorn texture. Apply the mix to the affected area once a day for about three days to see if the stain has subsided. The bleach / water method is hit or miss but it's worth a shot since it's the least expensive option. You could also try an find some product that contains Oxalic Acid. A wooden deck cleaning product will usually contain oxalic acid as it is the main ingredient that nuetralises wood stains
Purchase Special Products
Using a water and bleach solution in an attempt to remove a water stain from a popcorn ceiling will at the very minimum dull the stain, which could make concealing it or covering the stain that much easier. Before repainting the area, though, try and remove even more of the stain with some specialty products available from your local home improvement store. Products such as Kilz or Instagone are oil-based stain remover/concealer hybrids. If the stained area is located in a hidden corner of a room or if the stain is mostly covered by a light fixture then these products will often provide enough cover to disguise the stain. Again it's important to purchase the aerosol can or spray bottle version of these stain removers to keep the popcorn texture protected.
Prepping For Repainting
Sometimes stain remover simply doesn't work and the inevitability of repainting the ceiling must be faced. While you can try and paint only the affected area, most people find that redoing the whole ceiling is the only way they can avoid mismatched colors. Before you paint you need to prep the area, laying plastic on the floor to protect the carpet and putting masking tape on the area where the walls meet the ceiling. Dressers and beds should be moved out of bedrooms prior to painting your ceiling.
Use an Oil Based Stain Sealing Paint
The first layer of paint is the most important because of the difficulty in working with the popcorn texture. You'll want to use a special oil-based stain sealing paint to avoid water stains in the future. Not only is the type of paint important, so is the method of applying that paint since the popcorn texture will quickly absorb that first layer. Use a new foam roller and start in one corner of the room, gingerly rolling your way across the room. Make sure the entire area is covered as you go because rolling back over the texture once it has absorbed the paint can peel away the stucco. Make sure to go back through and cut in close quarters with a brush if the roller doesn't reach. Once the 'sealing of the ceiling' is complete, you won't have to worry about the popcorn texture coming off on subsequent coats.
Apply a Top Coat of Paint
In truth, the base layer of sealing paint is all a person would really need as long as it looks uniform. Most people prefer a top coat of paint because they already have the room taped off and it provides an extra layer of protection. Additionally, if the sealant was applied correctly you can take your time painting the wall with a quality latex paint because the popcorn texture won't scrape off going forward.
Think About Removing the Popcorn Look
Popcorn ceilings were very popular starting as far back as the 1950's. Depending on the age of your home, you might be familiar with how lax the building codes were back then which means your popcorn ceiling could contain dangerous asbestos. The Clean Air Act of 1978 banned the use of asbestos-bearing materials but it wasn't until the late 1980's that the products were obsolete. This means there's a very distinct possibility that the ceilings of your home could contain asbestos. You'll want to hire a professional drywall company to come in and inspect the property and then remove the harmful materials with industrial strength products and tools. You can always hire this company to finish the new ceiling with a stucco look again, but many homeowners find it easier to conceal the stain and avoid mismatched colors if the whole area is redone.
Popcorn ceilings are interesting because they offer a classic look and some homeowners prefer the textured ceilings. While many homeowners would prefer to remove the popcorn texture from their ceilings and start fresh, if you are determined to keep the popcorn look on your water stained ceiling you should be able to preserve the texture by following these simple steps.